THE BAROQUE BOW
wood and horse hair only...
a clip-in frog bow
The classical bows with screw appeared during the second half of the XVIIIth century, after the baroque period
view of the bow before cliping the nut in
view of the bow after cliping the nut in
This kind of bow is very strong, under a lot of tension compared to a bow with a screw mechanism.
How to choose your bow hold?
Only you can decide... both were used!
"Iconographic study of the violoncello and the way it was played up to the year 1800"
by Mark Meryn SMITH
"Certain Aspects of baroque music for the violoncello as finally exemplified in the suites for
unaccompanied violoncello by J.S. Bach. (thesis, doctorate, University of South Australia 1983-4)"
"THE CELLO BOW HELD THE VIOL WAY;
ONCE COMMON, BUT NOW ALMOST FORGOTTEN"
by Mark Smith
I. DOCUMENTS DESCRIBING THE OVERHAND BOW HOLD
example of CELLISTS WHO PLAYED WITH UNDERHAND BOW HOLD
Ferdinando III de Medicis- 1663-1713 -
His Villa in Patrolino was a center of music where he held operatic production in a theater built for that purpose. Close to D. Scarlatti, he produced five of his operas. Ferdinando was also in contact with J.F. Handel. Vivaldi dedicated him L'Estro Armonico, a collection of twelve concertos for one, two and four violins.
- Colleague of A. Vivaldi in 1720
- First violoncellist of the Church of St. Antonio in Padua, concertmaster: Tartini (1721)
- 1723-26 : Accompanist of Tartini in Prague
- 1726-70: Back to his position of principal cello of the Church of St. Antonio in Padua.
- 1776-78: Back to Bologna his birth town where he taught until his death.
Composition for the violoncello:
- Concerto in D major
- Six Sonatas
Charles Burney, Excerpt from: “Music men, and manners in France and Italy 1770”
German cellist Markus Graüel was born in Eisenach in the first half of the eighteenth century, he joined the chamber musicians of the Prussian Court in Berlin from 1742 until 1798.
Excerpt from "An eighteenth century musical tour in central Europe and the Netherland."(1773)
Johann Christoph Shetcky
1768-69 Played concerts in Hamburg
Appeared in concerts in London where he got the patronage of J.C. Bach.
In 1799 the "Allgemeine Muzikzeitung" published a long biographical print where his bow hold is described, explaining that his thumb was laying on the frog of the bow, the index finger was alone on the stick, and the other fingers were on the bow hair.
first CELLo star WHO PLAYED WITH OVER HAND BOW HOLD
"Fransciscello", a travelling virtuoso
His playing and sound had an important impact in the development and the popularity of the violoncello.
After a performance with Scarlatti, Geminiani related that only an angel that had descended and assumed his shape could have played like that. Quantz describes him as «the incomparable violoncellist Fransciscello."
Employed at the Imperial chapel of Vienna from 1726 until his death, he received by far the highest salary paid to any violoncellist at the chapel (1260 fl. while the standard salary was between 150 and 500 fl.) His fame also inspired viola da gamba players to explore the new instrument. The French gamba player Martin Berteau was one of them. After hearing a concert of Alborea, he decided to dedicate the rest of his career to the violoncello.
about the over hand bow hold
Michel Corette's description1741- end of the baroque period
Methode théorique et pratique pour apprendre en peu de temps de violoncelle dans sa perfection. - 1741
observation of Boccherini's bow hold
Date: circa 1764-1767