L'archet baroque et sa tenue 


.Baroque cello - Bass violin bow


.


vue de l'archet avant ET APRES AVOIR CLIPPé la hausse

UNE HAUSSE QUI SE CLIPPE Les archets avec une hausse vissée sont apparus pendant la deuxième partie du 18éme siècle

.

Archet fait par Hans Reiners, Berlin

.

.


.

La tenue d'archet


MAIN EN-DESSOUS

the hand is under the bow

MAIN AU-DESSUS

the hand is over the bow.

.


TENUE AVEC LA MAIN EN-DESOUS


Observation des peintures et documents historiques

ECOSSE

iel gow and his brother (Donald Gow, cellist), by David Allan, circa 1780

Niel gow and his brother (Donald Gow, cellist), by David Allan, circa 1780

HOLLANDE

Village musicians, by Adrian Jansz van Ostade, circa 1645

Village musicians, by Adrian Jansz van Ostade, circa 1645

ROYAUME UNI

Portrait of a gentleman seated playing cello, by Charles Philips, circa 1720

Portrait of a gentleman seated playing cello, by Charles Philips, circa 1720

italIE

Concerto in casa Lazzari by Girolamo Martinelli

Concerto in casa Lazzari by Girolamo Martinelli

.
closer view
.


A considérer... 

Dans des pays tels que L'Italie, l'Allemagne, les Pays Bas, la tenue d'archet la plus courante 

pendant l'epoque baroque était avec la main en dessous.
Lecture conseillée:
"Iconographic study of the violoncello and the way it was played up to the year 1800"

"Certain Aspects of baroque music for the violoncello as finally exemplified in the suites for
unaccompanied violoncello by J.S. Bach. (thesis, doctorate, University of South Australia 1983-4)"
by Mark Meryn SMITH

LIRE: "The cello bow held the viol way, once common, but almost forgotten" by Mark Smith  

Read - Page 47

.
DESCRIPTION

Allgemeine Musikzeitung, 1799, Leipzig

.

Translation:


The thumb was laying on the frog of the bow, the second finger was on the stick, and the other 3 fingers were on the bow hair. By the pressure of those fingers, especially the little finger, he increased the tension of his bow .

Description of J.C. Schetky's bow hold

.


Celebres violoncelliste qui jouaient avec la main sous la hausse


Ferdinando III de Medicis
- 1663-1713 -

FERDINANDO III DE MEDICIS
Ferdinando III, Patron of the arts

His Villa in Patrolino was a center of music where he held operatic production in a theater built for that purpose. Close to D. Scarlatti, he produced five of his operas. Ferdinando was also in contact with J.F. Handel. Vivaldi dedicated him L'Estro Armonico, a collection of twelve concertos for one, two and four violins.
traduction à venir...

Antonio Vandini

His career:

- Colleague of A. Vivaldi  in 1720
- First violoncellist of the Church of St. Antonio in Padua, concertmaster: Tartini (1721)
- 1723-26 : Accompanist of Tartini in Prague
- 1726-70: Back to his position of principal cello of the Church of St. Antonio in Padua.
- 1776-78: Back to Bologna his birth town where he taught until his death.
Composition for the violoncello:

  • Concerto in D major

  • Six Sonatas


Charles Burney, Excerpt from: “Music men, and manners in France and Italy 1770”


allemagne


Markus Grauel


German cellist Markus Graüel was born in Eisenach in the first half of the eighteenth century.

He joined the chamber musicians of the Prussian Court in Berlin from 1742 until 1798.

"M. Grauel, a violoncello performer in the king’s band, played a concerto; it was but ordinary music; however, it was well executed, though in the old manner, with the hand under the bow"
Excerpt from "An eighteenth century musical tour in central Europe and the Netherland."(1773)
Charles Burney

Johann Christoph Shetcky


In 1799 the "Allgemeine Musikzeitung" published a long biographical print where his bow hold is described, explaining that his thumb was laying on the frog of the bow, the index finger was alone on the stick, and the other fingers were on the bow hair.
His career:

Spent six months in Hamburg in 1761 where he got offered a Stradivarius.

  • 1761-68 Cellist of the court orchestra of Darmstadt
  • 1768-69 Played concerts in Hamburg

He also appeared in concerts in London where he got the patronage of J.C. Bach.

.

 tenue d'archet AVEC la main sur la baguette


peintures, documents historiques

angleterre

Excerpt from: A cellist in Handel's orchestra - Philip Mercier - c.1740-1- (Cellist: J. Hebden )

France

Excerpt from Musique de chambre, by Carmontelle - c.1765-70

( Cellist: J.P. Duport) 

Italie

Portrait of Giovanni Battista Cirri by Giacomo Ceruti

descriptions de Michel Corette
1741

Methode théorique et pratique pour apprendre en peu de temps de violoncelle dans sa perfection. - 1741

.

"On the manner of holding the bow"
by jl DUPORT


PREMIER VIOLONCELLISTE QUI FAIT PARLER DE LUI PARTOUT EN eUROPE:


FRANCESCO ALBOREA


"Franciscello", a travelling virtuoso
Born in 1691 in Napoli, Italy.

His playing and sound had an important impact in the development and the popularity of the violoncello. After a performance with Scarlatti, Geminiani related that only an angel that had descended and assumed his shape could have played like that. Quantz describes him as «the incomparable violoncellist Fransciscello."

Employed at the Imperial chapel of Vienna from 1726 until his death, he received by far the highest salary paid to any violoncellist at the chapel (1260 fl. while the standard salary was between 150 and 500 fl.) 

His fame also inspired viola da gamba players to explore the new instrument. The French gamba player Martin Berteau was one of them. After hearing a concert of Alborea, he decided to dedicate the rest of his career to the violoncello.

martin berteau

Berteau was born in 1691 in Valenciennes, France.
overhand? underhand?...

ABOUT BERTEAU...

This is the only portrait of Berteau, there is no more information about his bow and bow-hold.

Berteau was born in 1691 in Valenciennes, France.

Before becoming a cellist, Berteau was a fine bass viol player. Important figure as a performer teacher and composer, "The famous Bertaud", is considered as the founder of the French school of violoncello. He left no written record of his teaching method, but many of his pupils did. Among them: the Brothers Janson, Jean-Pierre Duport, Jean-Baptiste Bréval, François Cupis de Renoussard, Joseph Tillière, Dominique Bideau. Famous for his use of harmonics, he composed 6 cello sonatas Sonate Da camera a violoncello Solo col Basso Continuo op.l where he wrote an explanation on how to play harmonics on the cello.

Berteau's life (in French)


.



ABOUT THE CHOICE OF BOW-HOLD


We know that both bow-holds were used for cello playing, let's oberve the other instruments.

THE CHOICE OF BOW HOLD IS RELATED TO THE WAY THE INSTRUMENT IS HELD IN ORDER TO USE THE NATURAL STRENGTH OF THE ARM THROUGH THE PALM OF THE HAND

.

.

Overhand bow hold 

Only instrument held in the Da Spalla/violin position 

+cellists


Underhand bow hold

Only instrument held in the upright position

including cellists

But the cellists used both bow-holds..

a lire aussi...


Up or down? My research.

observation de la tenue d'archet de Boccherini

"Luigi Boccherini playing the violoncello"
Date: circa 1764-1767
Even if this is post baroque, the hand is still placed at the balance point of the bow